Europe predominantly uses 1,435mm standard gauge, while the railways of the former Soviet Union use 1,524 mm broad gauge. As a result at Vadul Siret our train was split up into individual carriages, lifted up by jacks, and the bogies swapped over.
Uithoflijn tram derailed at FC Utrecht stadium: ‘A terribly loud thunder’
Jeroen van Barneveld
February 16 2021
A tram on the Uithoflijn derailed near the FC Utrecht stadium on Tuesday morning after a collision with a delivery van from supermarket chain Jumbo. There were no injuries, reports the Utrecht Safety Region.
The tram ran almost completely out of its rails around 11 a.m. and ended up transversely on the Laan van Maarschalkerweerd. The emergency services came out en masse. A trauma helicopter was also called in to provide medical assistance.
Safety region Utrecht expects that the tram recovery will take hours. U-OV reports that the overhead wires are badly damaged and that there are probably no more trams running on the Uithoflijn today.
You can see the site of the crash on Google Street View – the light rail tracks crosses from one side of the road to the other at a set of traffic lights.
Kitay-gorod is located on Line 6 Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya and Line 7 Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya. It consists of two separate parallel station halls, connected by a central transfer bridge, and a combined escalator vestibule at each end.
Cross-platform interchange is possible between northbound trains on the eastern platform, and between southbound trains via the western platform. For passengers wishing to travel in the opposite direction, it is required to use the transfer corridor linking the two platforms.
Tretyakovskaya is located on Line 6 Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya and Line 8 Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya. Tretyakovskaya was originally a two platform station before the connection with Kalininskaya Line was opened in 1986.
At that time a second hall was opened, forming a cross-platform interchange.
On the Moscow Metro can be found a curious piece of rolling stock – Контактно-аккумуляторный электровоз – battery-electric locomotives converted from retired metro carriages to haul maintenance trains through underground tunnels.
A total of fifteen 81-717 / 714 metro carriages have been converted by «Вагонмаш» (Vagonmash ZAO) at their plant in St Petersburg, classified as 81-580, 81-581 and 81-582. The first two units entered service in 1992, with further units produced between 2002 and 2017.
Intermediate 81-714 carriages were used as a basis for the conversion, with driving cabs and marker lights retrofitted at each end. To allow the locomotives to work with various types of rolling stock, both ‘railway’ SA-3 knuckle couplers and ‘metro’ Scharfenberg automatic coupler were installed at each end.
Recharging of the batteries is possible via the 750V contact rail or from a 380V AC power supply, and once fully charged the locomotive can operate autonomously for 7-8 hours, with up to 30 starting and braking cycles per hour. On level ground the locomotive can haul up to 300 tonnes at 50 km/h, reducing to 70 tonnes on a 6% grade.
Saft won a major order from Metrowagonmash to provide a battery power system to provide emergency traction power for new rail cars destined for the Moscow Metro. The project is Moscow Metro’s first use of onboard batteries to prevent trains being stranded between stations in the event of a power outage.
Saft MSX nickel technology cells will be installed underneath the floor of the new ‘Moskva-2020’ coaches. The batteries enable trains to run on their own autonomous power for distances up to 6.5 km and on gradients of up to four percent – the maximum on the network.
To mark the 80th anniversary of the Moscow Metro, from 15-19 May 2015, two exhibitions of unique rolling stock of the metro took place on the centre track at Партизанская (Partizanskaya) station.
During the first exhibition, on May 15 and 16, decommissioned historic cars were displayed at the station, which were stored for the future exhibition at the Metro Museum and restored at the beginning of the exhibition. During the exposition, cars of types A type No. 1 (motor car) and 1031 (trailer), G No. 530, UM5 No. 806, D No. 2037, E No. 3605 and a battery-powered electric locomotive VEKA-001 were presented.
During the second exhibition, held on May 18 and 19, service and maintenance vehicles were exhibited at the station.
The Kiev Metro is a relatively simple system – three independent metro lines running across the city, with passengers changing between them at one of three interchange stations. However trains do have a way of making their way between the lines, using hidden tracks that passenger services do not use.
Known as «Служебная соединительная ветвь» (service connecting branches) these single-track tunnels connect three Kiev Metro lines via a series of tight curves – their 150 metre radius is far shaper than the usual 300 metre minimum radius – resulting in a 40 km/h speed limit, with a recommended speed of 18 km/h.
The first connection to open was «ССВ-1» in the mid-1970s, linking Khreshchatyk (Хрещатик) station on line 1 with the under construction line 2 at Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Майдан Незалежності) station; followed by «ССВ-2» in the late-1980s, connecting the new line 3 at Klovska (Кловська) station to the rest of the network via the «ССВ-1» tunnel.
A major link in the Italian rail network is the 18.5 kilometre long Apennine Tunnel, passing under the Apennine Mountains to connect the railways of north Italy with those of Tuscany and central Italy. But it is notable for more than just length – second longest in the world when completed, and 16th longest today – but for a railway station located midway through the tunnel – “Stazione delle Precedenze”.
However increasing rail traffic saw the need for a more direct route, so a double track “direttissima” (most direct) route was approved. Construction of the Apennine Tunnel commenced on this route in 1923, from three locations – the two tunnel portals, as well the middle.
The central shaft was located at the village of Cà di Landino.
With a funicular railway running through two 500 metre long shafts on a 27 degree incline to the tunnel itself.
Two crossovers were provided in the station cavern to allow trains to change tracks, and two 450 metre long siding tracks beside the main double track tunnel, so that slow or failed trains would not delay other services.
Trains still used the Apennine Tunnel today, but Stazione delle Precedenze was closed to passengers in the 1960s – equipment rooms now occupying the site, the passing tracks having been dismantled, and the crossover points converted to remote control.
There are many ways for a locomotive to be turned – reversing loops, turntables, and triangular junctions. But there is one bizarre track configuration that can also do the same job – a reversing star.
Reversing stars were common on the railways of Italy, where they are known as Stella di inversione – Itilian language Wikipedia describes them further.
The reversing star is configuration of railway tracks in the shape of a five pointed star that allows the reversing of an asymmetrical rail vehicle, such as a steam locomotive, in a limited space.
The reversing star is functionally equivalent to a turntable or return loop. Identical functionality can be obtained through a star configuration with an arbitrary number of points, as long as they are odd. In reality, in addition to the pentagram inversion star, only the reversing triangle is used.
Being a fixed installation, the reversing star requires less maintenance than the turntable and therefore was for this reason preferred to it in some cases. Compared to the reversing triangle, more widespread in the United States , the number of manoeuvres required is greater, but the space occupied is much smaller. The dimensions are also much smaller compared to the return loop, but it has the advantage of being able to reverse an entire train.
And how they are used to turn a train.
The star consists of five segments, two of which are usually connected to the main track for entry and exit, while the other three are dead ends. Alternatively, a single entry / exit track can be provided with four dead end tracks. There are a total of five sets of points, one at each vertex of the star, as well as three diamond crossings.
The locomotive coming from the mainline enters the star from the access track and proceeds on the first leg. After switching the points, the locomotive moves back to the second leg, then advances on the next leg and then moves back onto the exit track, returning to the mainline with the front facing the direction opposite to the one at the entrance.
At least five reversing stars were built on the railways of Italy.
Malles Venosta is in South Tyrol, and opened in 1906 as the terminus of the newly built Val Venosta railway. It closed in 1990, but reopened in 2005. The reversing star was built in 1930, and is still operational today for the use of tourist trains.
Oristano station in Sardinia opened as the terminus of the San Gavino Monreale railway in 1872. A reversing star was provided by World War II, with the remaining in place until 2013, when the tracks were dismantled.
Reversing stars were installed at stations of Brennero and San Candido following World War I, when the division of Tyrol under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which created a need for locomotives to be turned at the new national borders.
On 15 June 1931 at the meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union it was decided to build the Moscow Metro to improve the transport situation in the city. In November 1931, construction began on the first experimental site on Rusakovskaya Street. During the design, a debate arose about the type of future metro stations: whether they will have island or side platforms. It was decided to adopt a three-vaulted station with island platform design.
Excluded from the initial plans for the first stage of the Moscow Metro, it was decided to build the station once the route had been decided, so the tunnel was expanded in size to allow curved platforms to be built beside the tracks.